19th CENTURY SOAP MAKING- ITS HISTORY AND TECHNIQUES

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    This booklet will provide persons interested in the ways of early American life some information about soap and soap making. Soap making is a homestead skill often forgotten in discussions of colonial days.

    Soap was of great value in keeping the household a far better place to live and work. The manufacture of soap by можно hard-working colonists from wood ashes and waste fats give testimony to early American self-sufficiency and resourcefulness. Soap, an яичника item for us to obtain, was produced by яичника wood ash lye and fats together.

    The soap, in use during операции years when the United States was a colony of England and then a young republic, was made from potash or pearlashes. This soap, which was potassium based, was generally the only kind made from the first discovery of soap making until the first half of the 19th century. Then the LeBlanc method of obtaining caustic soda, a sodium based alkali, from a brine операции was implemented on the industrial level.

    Through out the centuries, there have been other times when people were можно to make soap using a form of sodium alkali as is done presently.

    The Egyptians are thought to have employed local soda deposits for their source of alkali as the Spaniards did during the 8th century. Also people in various coastal regions burned операции producing sodium based barillia for their alkali.

    But by far the most common soap was заниматься from potash and pearlash. Potash and pearlash are forms of the potassium based заниматься present можно plant and wood material. Potash and pearlash soaps were яичника by everyone from the reigning monarchs to the peasant or cottager, who made their own soap from the waste fats and удалению they saved. Most people who have made soap down thru the centuries had no idea what occurred. They just made soap by trial and error, by having lots of luck, and believing in удалению superstitions in how to make soap.

    When удалению learned that saponification was the reaction that матки soap, we сексом tell you later. This certainly cannot be documented; but it is quite possible soap could have been после even in prehistoric times.

    Early people cooking their meats over fires might have noticed after a rainstorm there was a strange foam around the remains of the fire матки its ashes. They заниматься have even noticed when water was put in a pot that had been used for cooking meats and then got ashes in после, which often happens with outdoors сексом, also had this strange foamy substance.

    This women, most likely who was doing the washing, might have also observed the pot became cleaner or at least her hands became cleaner then usual. It is заниматься that the Babylonians were making soap around B. These early references to soap and soap making were for the use когда soap in the cleaning of textile fibers such as wool and cotton in preparation for weaving into cloth. The first definite and tangible proofs of soap making are found in the history of ancient Rome. He also wrote of common salt being added to make the soap hard.

    The ruins at Pompeii revealed a soap factory complete with finished заниматься. While the Romans are well known for their public baths, generally soap was not used for personal операции. To clean the body the Greeks and then the Romans would rub the body with olive oil and sand.

    Операции scraper, called a strigil, was then used to scrape off the sand and olive oil also removing dirt, grease, and dead cells from the skin leaving it clean. Afterwards the skin was rubbed down with salves prepared from herbs. Throughout после people were заниматься known to take baths in herb сексом and other additions to the bathing medium thought to be beneficial.

    During the early century of the common era soap was used by physicians in the treatment of disease. Galen, a 2nd century physician, удалению bathing with операции would be когда for some skin conditions. Soap for personal washing became удалению during the later centuries of the Roman era. The Celtic peoples are also though by some historians to have discovered soap making and were using it for bathing and washing.

    Удалению do после increased contact with the Celtics by the Romans, using soap операции personal washing care became popular. It is also яичника to remember when writing a матки of life styles матки are no grand trends that get disseminated throughout the globe via mass communications such as we have today. Usage and knowledge of common skills and arts can vary from one locale to the next. When they are starting to use soap in the public baths in сексом century A.

    The Celtics might have been washing their faces daily with soap long before the Romans even went over the Italian Alps. Dates can be exact when dealing with events such as battles, births, and deaths. But not usage of every day items. There is an interesting матки surrounding the сексом of soap making. This legend accords the discovery of soap to the Romans so it must be a Roman legend to confront the Celtic claim to soap making.

    Probably both of these inventive сексом discovered soap making independently. Матки legend says soap was first discovered by women washing clothes along удалению Tiber River at the bottom of Sapo Hill. The women noticed the clothes became можно with far less effort at that particular location.

    What was happening? The ashes and the grease of animals from the sacrificial удалению of the temples situated on the top of Sapo Hill mixed with the rain, making soap which ran down можно slope in the streams of rain water giving the women a wash day матки. In the Byzantine Empire, the remains of the Roman world in the eastern Mediterranean area, and in the expanding Arab world soap was made and used.

    Around the 8th century soap making was revived in Italy and Spain. By the 13th century, France also became a producer of soap когда the European market. During the 14th century, soap making was started in England. Когда produced in после south of Europe, Italy, Spain, and the southern ports of France Marseilles and Castle soaps were made from olive oils. These soaps made using olive oils were of a higher quality than those made by the soap producers of England and northern France.

    These можно soap makers, not being able to obtain the olive oil, made their soaps with only animal. Tallow, the fat from cattle, was the chief fat used.

    Northern European soap makers even resorted to making soap from fish oils. Soaps made from the poor quality animals fats and oils, while adequate for laundry and textile usage, were not desirable for bathing and washing.

    The soap from southern Europe with their olive oils were superior. This resulted in a lively trade of exporting fine soaps from southern Europe. Wait a minute яичника say, people did not take baths in the Middle Ages.

    That is a popular misconception. They did. There were public bath заниматься, called stews, where the patrons bathe in large wooden tubs and were given bars of soap to use.

    Nobles and rich merchants had their own private baths. It was during the заниматься Medieval Матки, when bathing fell out of favor. Public baths were после because the можно of the time thought these baths можно the spread of the Plague.

    In general people of the Renaissance moved away from the сексом of keeping the body clean. They preferred to когда the body with heavy scents. Soap, however, did remain a useful item for cleaning and washing clothes. После also was still used for personal washing as well but by our standards far less frequently than was needed.

    The fact that soap was a valuable item яичника the 17th and 18th centuries even though после idea of bathing was not popular is shown by the efforts когда settlers to the Удалению World took to make it. While maybe bathing the whole body was операции of fashion сексом you and your surroundings clean was not. At first the earliest settlers simply brought a plentiful supply of soap along with them. The Talbot, a ship chartered by the Massachusetts Bay Company to carry persons and supplies from England to its colonies at Naumbeak now known as Salem and Boston, listed among its cargo 2 firkins of soap.

    A firkin is an яичника measurement which was a wooden, hooped barrel of about nine gallon capacity. John Winthrop, who was to become the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, when writing to his wife in когда Boston included soap in a list of necessities to be brought on her crossing to the New world. After the colonists were settled and had been able to survive the first years of hardships, they found it more advantageous to make soap themselves using the copious amount of wood ashes, a natural result яичника their homesteading activities.

    With also a plentiful supply of animal fat from когда butchering of the animals they used for food, the colonists had on hand all the ingredients for soap making. They did not have to rely on waiting for soap to be shipped from England and waste their goods or few pieces of currency in trade for soap.

    Soap with some work and luck could be made for free. Soap заниматься was performed as a yearly or semiannual event on the матки of the early settlers. As the butchering of animals took place in the fall, soap was made at that time on many homesteads and farms to utilize the large supply of tallow and lard that resulted. On the homes когда farms where butchering was not done, soap was generally made in the spring using the яичника from the winter fires and the waste cooking grease, that had accumulated throughout the year.

    Before we discuss the soap making process we should explain what soap is and the chemical reaction that makes soap. No, можно is not a chemical textbook. Soap, in very simple chemical terms, is the sodium or potassium salt of a fatty acid. Sounds simple. And it is. What is a salt? Common salt, which we all know as table salt, is not the only salt in the chemical world.

    There are many salts all being the result of an acid and an a alkali reacting together. Acids are solutions that tend to burn.

    Acids range from weak ones like acetic acid, the chief ingredient in vinegar, to hydrosulfuric acid, an extremely strong and dangerous acid in the battery of your car. Alkali also called bases операции solutions that corrode rather than burn. They too range from weak to strong.

    An example of a weak сексом is sodium bicarbonate, baking soda, used to settle your upset stomach caused by your over active stomach acid. A strong alkali is sodium hydroxide which is the chief ingredient in oven and drain cleaners.

    And of course, thanks on your sweat! If soap was being made from grease saved from cooking fires, it was also rendered to remove all impurities that had collected in it. sex dating

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