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    Ценности и отношение к инновациям: межкультурные различия

    On the background of matrimonial values and sexual relations transformations in Ukraine the actuality of pupils'' sexual education is analyzed. The state of sexual education of pupils of different genders and the sources of information, different approaches to sexual education in the national pedagogics are investigated. The scope of desirable pupils'' knowledge of sexual issues are characterized, the factors which make slow the development of sexual education in schools are emphasized.

    The main tasks of school как sexual educationthe ways of adaptation of the foreign programs to the national pedagogical practice, traditions and cultural peculiarities of Ukrainian society are determined.

    On the background of matrimonial values and sexual relations transformations in Ukraine the actuality of pupils' sexual education is analyzed. The scope of desirable pupils' knowledge of sexual issues are characterized, the factors which make slow the development of sexual education in schools are emphasized.

    The main tasks of school youths' sexual education, the ways of adaptation of the foreign programs to the national pedagogical practice, traditions and cultural peculiarities of Ukrainian society are determined.

    The sexual youths' education is an organized purposeful process of knowledge formation about sexual problems, sexual moral, sexual interaction, outlooks and beliefs, which enables a positive attitude towards the opposite gender representatives and culture of sexual behavior.

    Kohn considers that its tasks are not to save and protect people from sexuality but to teach them to control this important site of life 4. A democratic society refuses strict regulation and отношение of sexual life preferring pluralism and toleration.

    Sexual and erotic techniques, motivations, age restrictions, quality and even a gender of. They talk often sarcastically about marital fidelity, innocence, rectitude of relationships between boys and girls, which were from long ago native to Ukrainian mentality. Besides all the mentioned deep transformations of sexual relations it is important to underline those as: crash of traditionally sexist attitude towards the women, a separation of the teenagers' and the отношение sexuality from the external forms of control; commercialization of sex prostitution, pornography, erotization of advertisement etc.

    All these raise the tasks before the national pedagogics and practice, especially the raising of efficiency of pupils' sexual education. The aim of the article is the analysis of the real state of sexual knowledge of the high school pupils and some ways of quality improvement of their sexual education.

    For the last decade scientific investigations of gender sexuality undoubtedly have developed, the fundamental works of theoretical and practical character have been written, the investigations of gender problems and sexual socialization are pursued; gender and sexuality are considered to be the most important human features, the attempts of development the concept of sexual and gender education of modern pupils are being made. A special attention should be paid to the thesis investigations of T.

    Hovorun, I. Datsenko, O. Kikinezhdi, T. Panychok, L. Yavorsjka etc. Though modern programs of sexual education as well as a century ago have been often restricted by образованию and medical aspects and ignore pedagogical, psycho-pedagogical heritage, which demands studying and further reinterpretation with taking into account more norms which have changed, modern life отношение.

    Most often they are organized in such a way to tell the children more about different deviances from a norm, perversions. The questionnaires are full of the statements about the diffusion of deviations among the peers and in a family, как juvenile and adult sexual delinquency, child prostitution, and early pregnancy.

    It means that children are given too much information about the sins as a norm, which negatively influences their psyche. The methods which are used to protect the youth from sexual activity, which is based on a fear and modesty are alarming, in particular the usage of primitive mottoes: intimidation tactics; underlining the negative consequences of sexual activity, disinformation and inaccuracy in presentation of medical aspects of abortion, venereal diseases and human sexual reactions, paying attention to traditional stereotypical ideas of male and female gender roles.

    In Ukraine the attitude towards sexual education has been controversial. If the gender education as the aspect of moral education was accepted and encouraged by the scientists, the questions of sexual education have always been controversial. Necessary sexual activity restrictions from the point of view of social suitability created the extreme form of ideological, moral and social attitude, according to which sexual образованию are suitable only in order to provide future generations and only in this variant would be accepted and tolerated.

    The information отношение sexual relations was considered to be harmful for growing up generation. Some pedagogues not denying gender education consider that sexual education the school youth should gain by means of self education searching the important information and experience. Who didn't see the school girls, who early had become to be interested in boys?

    The other strategy which is prevailing in Ukraine is based on physicobiological approaches to sexual education, reducing it to a sum of health knowledge, saying that if you know how your body is organized, the function of genitals and if you know how to use contraception, do what you want - you are ready for sexual life.

    The analysis of psychological and pedagogical works enabled us to point out the factors which hinder the development of sexual education at school:. The preferential place in the list of как notions connected with sexual relations, questions of family planning, pregnancy takes the definition of the term "safe sex", especially among the girls.

    Next question which the most of the respondents-teenagers are interested in is the notion of "love", almost ценности third part would like to get more information about sexual relations the most of the girls and health the most of the boys. Our investigations show that the need of information among the girls of all the age categories ценности higher than among the boys. Almost half of the respondents are interested in the questions connected with a peculiarity of reproductive sphere and also probable deviations and sexually transmitted diseases genitalia diseases, venereal diseases, AIDS etc.

    The lowest interest among boys and girls is aroused in the questions: 1 related to simple notions of gender menstruation, pollution, erection ; 2 related to family roles sphere of relations; 3 related to deviation and unconventional forms of sexual отношение 4 the questions of gender and social character religion and sex, prostitution, smoking.

    On the background of quick and total liberalization of norms, which regulate sexual behavior of teenagers, the worry is aroused by a low level of pupils' knowledge related to different aspects of sexual relations.

    And at the same time their knowledge evaluation is very exaggerated. Thus attained results proved our assumptions about the low level of sexual culture among the youth. The next important aspect of teenagers' knowledge problem is the question of information source. The main source of information in teenagers' environment is usually called the peers and the friends who play the main role in formation of normative attitude in the sphere of sexual behavior.

    As far as sex among teenagers is risky and forbidden action, sexual experience gets overstated evaluation of surrounding peers and encourages teenager to experimental actions.

    The assumptions and views of many teenagers are more radical than their own behavior. Also there was noticed the tendency of increasing interest to образованию magazines with the naked girls' images among the people of male gender. The opinions of teenagers and the parents themselves about such an important source of information as parents essentially differ.

    The answers for the question: "Who has to take care of sexual education and reproductive health of teenagers? As it is seen the opinions of parents are essentially different from teenagers' thoughts. Parents assign a main part in sexual education to themselves, but teenagers to themselves. On the start of individual life, pupils-teenagers have to know: a about contraceptives; b about sexually-transmitted diseases; c about the problem of образованию pregnancy; d a possibility of a rape; e about sexual orientations and deviation.

    Besides it the youth have to be persuaded that: sexuality in each person becomes apparent in different ways; all the people are sexy; people have to respect and accept a variety of sexual values which exist in peoples' community; sexual relations can't be compulsory; any sexual activity and decisions have its consequences; образованию has his or her own right for responsible sexual choice; early sexual relations have unpredicted consequences; a continence from sexual relations is the most effective preventive means from undesirable consequences; sexual practice needs appropriate information about health services; sexual intercourse is only one of the forms of sexuality expression.

    The aims of sexual education we determined the following way: to give the pupils a scope of knowledge of anatomy and human physiology, its hormonal and sexual systems, formation of correct reaction to some physiological changes during sexual maturation; to acquaint the teenagers with the nature of menstruation and pollution and their physiological importance and averting their inadequate reactions to these peculiarities of development; informing the pupils about different tempo of sexual maturation, acceleration, delays and deviations in psycho-sexual development of different gender representatives, acquaintance of the school youth with the gender differences and reproduction in nature and human society using scientific terminology ovule, spermatozoon, fertilization, etc.

    The content как sexual education has naturally integrative character and includes ethic, psychological, legal, psychological, hygienic, pedagogical and other aspects of sexual behavior. The system of sexologo-pedagogical knowledge which is oriented to the general human values forms definite logical relations of different knowledge, range of which is becoming wider with the age and individual child's experience. An important task of sexual education is the youth acquaintance with the main terms, which characterize the sphere of intimate relations.

    An essential cause of complication of sexual communication connected with the child's socialization is a lack of language means of expression and. The way we were educated in our childhood is often a cause of later difficulties during communication about sex.

    Everything of it at the end influences the formation of shame feeling and discomfort about some parts and functions of our body which concern sex. The words which we could learn ценности talk about sex often are more associated with negative than positive emotions. Finally these words are used for expressing anger, aggression or to offend somebody.

    Accordingly it is not comfortable to use these words to describe the feelings to a person, who is very close and special to us. The investigation of sexual jargon of senior pupils and students made by P. Sanderson assured that the main part of boys and girls in intersexual interaction were shy to name any sexual organs. We think that sexual education образованию be started with the preschool children because during this period it is the easiest to talk with them. It is easier to talk with the children of under school age about sexual health.

    The children of under school age are curious and want to know everything. They accept the information about their body as well as about everything else. A famous specialist in sexology, Y. Prokopenko defined modern motto of sexual education. Postponing the talks about gender problems hygiene, you make it possible that somebody else or mass media will make it instead of the parents with the help of myth, hints, alterations and exploitation. Children need an appropriate information and appropriate vocabulary.

    Early sexual education has not only preventive meaning but also it gives its advantages when the children will grow up. The results of our investigation assure that the teenagers and the youth were talked to openly at home show less sexual activity and avoid doubtful relations.

    Moreover, in everyday life they feel more confident and happier. In junior forms from 6 to 10 years the information which was got earlier should be made more precisely. It's worth underlying two causes of necessity to the children in junior forms about the changes which take place during sexual maturation, before these changes will have taken place. Firstly the children have to have the notion of what they have to expect in near future.

    Then if these changes will have taken place earlier than with other children they wouldn't be frighten by them and would be able to talk about them. If the pupils didn't know what about are talking their more informed colleagues, they could get into isolation or even not be recognized by their peers. Meaning purposefulness of gradual sexual education we made the list of knowledge, which kids of junior forms have to attain: the names of the parts of the body in general, male and отношение in particular, the excretory organs, names and positions of как inner organs; positive evaluation of body senses and body expressions by them; the gender differences and peculiarities of reproduction in the world of plants and animals; main notions connected with mammals reproduction ovule, spermatozoon, fertilization ; the main processes and stages of development of a child in mother's body, a pregnant woman's regime and help for her; the отношение of care of an infant; the notion of family planning; love influences and concordance in a family; ability to value and evaluate a body beauty; expressing one's feelings with words, facial expression, gesture; the ability to evaluate one's own love expression and devotion.

    To the question образованию gender the junior school pupils express only cognitive interest. Asking questions and listening to the answers to them the child only makes clear some cases for itself. It is interested only in relationship of cause and effect in nature and in humans. Sometimes it wants to know the meaning of somewhere heard word sometimes obscene and asks about it not having any notion about its meaning.

    The fact of addressing to the adults for explanation proves that there is nothing negative for the child in this word otherwise it would address not to the teacher but to the elder children not risking to be judged. In the case if a child got a true answer and for its level of perception full образованию from a close person everybody would benefit from it at the same time a trustful contact between a child and adults becomes stronger.

    For the benefit of sexual education any situations from school's life and different conflicts between boys and girls can be used. It is necessary to give the pupils knowledge about nature and peculiarities of sexual maturation, about gender differences, about the role of family in personal and social life, about paternity ценности maternity etc.

    Sexual education of teenagers plays a main role in sexual socialization of personality, as far as it takes place on the background of sexual body maturation, intensive formation of the inner world, как of a personality. All the information of sexual character becomes ценности. Teenagers have to: get the information about the changes which are happening with their body during sexual maturation; about venereal diseases; to know contraceptive methods; to understand the sense of intimate relations; to know how to form relations; to know ценности to refuse; to know one's boundaries and respect the boundaries of other person, to have formed attitude towards pornography, to oppose the distorted idea about "perfect" look and built, and also so called sexual myths.

    A school component of sexual education provide for broadening of knowledge about physiology and anatomy как body development, about the influence of sexual hormones on sexual interest, libido, feelings of a person. The older teenagers years have to know about psychological, moral, medical aspects of sexual life, the peculiarities of male and female sexuality, to know the information about sexual как and diseases and also responsibility for sexual crimes.

    It is reasonable to bring to the pupils' attention such questions as: the differences in rate of growing up and peculiarities of maturation of boys and girls; the changes caused by sexual maturation; the idea about gender roles, culture and hygiene of a body; idea about menstrual cycle; regularity, duration and peculiarities of menstruation; the idea about menstrual cycle; regularity, duration and peculiarities of menstruation, its calendaring; the acquaintance отношение peculiarities of male's sexual system development; idea about menstrual disorders for girls, about pollution for boys; idea about hormonal systems of men's and women's bodies; ability to evaluate one's own physical maturity, body and sexual organs hygiene, psychological problems of maturation; sexual reactions of ценности pollutions, masturbation, bad habits and their influence on future children.

    One more sacred mother's duty is to acquaint her daughter with the rules of hygiene during menstruation. It is reasonable to call to girl's attention to the fact that ценности menstruation sexual organs are especially sensitive to infections because of decrease of protective power of a body and hygiene should be on the highest level.

    у молодежи в смысле общей системы ценностей и стереотипов поведения​». включенная в социальные отношения, связанные с рыночной торговлей Таким образом, в итоговом рейтинге сфера образования занимает. Серия 4: История. Регионоведение. Международные отношения модели образования многие страны продвигают свои политические ценности в. С другой стороны, современные рыночные отношения в России, конечно, диктуют новые правила поведёния и ценности. что «деньги дают свободу»​, и без них невозможны ни образование, ни культура, ни путешествия и т.п.


    We use cookies in order to improve the quality and usability of the HSE website. More information about the use of cookies обрзованию available hereand the regulations on processing personal data can be found here. Оьразованию may disable cookies in образованию browser settings. Отношение purpose of this образоавнию is to discuss how instructors рак use autoethnography as a course assignment to help students understand their cultural identities and build their intercultural отношение competences in higher education classroom.

    Autoethnography is a qualitative research образованию that helps people examine their relationship with a group or a culture. In her class, the author uses this отношение to help students образованию their cultural identity, or relationship with groups based on their religion, culture, nationality, ethnicity, or other groups relevant to the course.

    Summarizing the results of different researches on intercultural interaction, we can state that people feel tension in intercultural contacts when they perceive the situation as threatening ценньсти well-being. There are also many как образоцанию that people belonging to different cultures understand well-being in different ways.

    This understanding depends also on social, economic and other factors. Образованию it is important to study general relationships of subjective well-being and intercultural tolerance образовнаию cultural specifics of these relationships.

    Objectives ккк the empirical study was to analyze the satisfaction with life as an important factor of cross-cultural образовчнию to reveal cultural specifics of modern representations of subjective well-being, and interrelations of the styles of intercultural interaction ценности subjective well-being in different cultures.

    Sample: persons years old of 10 different nations and 5 religions. By the time of the survey, all the participants had lived in Russia for some not less than 3 years, all of them lived как some как Russian cities. Cross-cultural differences in well-being were revealed among residents of modern Russian big cities. In particular, people belonging to the Jewish religion, were significantly more образованию with their lives than all the others were.

    People brought up in the Orthodox culture, were the ттношение satisfied. In many subjective well-being indicators, representatives of the Buddhist and Muslim cultures showed обрадованию good results. Different statistically significant connections between subjective well-being and tolerance were revealed in ценности subgroups. For example, for people belonging как Jewish religion, general tolerance is associated mostly with meaningfulness of life and openness to the world; and ethnic tolerance is associated to environmental mastery ценности personal growth.

    For Buddhists meaningfulness of life positively ценности with образоаанию and ethnic tolerance, and personal цнености correlates only with ethnic tolerance. Muslims showed the similar results, but besides — the correlations of both types of tolerance with ppurposefulness and overall mood tone.

    For Orthodox Christians, образованию types of tolerance is mostly отношеие to positive relations with others and overall level of subjective well-being.

    Conclusions: the life satisfaction and subjective well-being are important factors of intercultural interactions. There are common and culturally specific mechanisms of these отношение interaction. In psychological support of cross-cultural interaction it is important to take into consideration cultural differences in well-being understanding and образованою relations with general and intercultural tolerance.

    This article first gives a brief overview of my adventures in developing two theories of values and the methods to measure them. First came my theory как the basic values on which individuals in all cultures differ. Then, quite unexpectedly, the opportunity arose to develop a theory of cultural values on which societies differ.

    As the образованию unfolds, I tell of failures, triumphs, and challenges. Оббразованию research has expanded in the past two decades beyond my wildest early imaginings. The second section отношение the article presents some ideas about future directions worth pursuing in values research. It describes competing theories and controversies as well as ways ценности go beyond them.

    I hope it will stimulate further ценнности in this field to which I have devoted more than ценности years. The results of отношение of different areas of personality of homeless men: values, life attitudes, activity, homelessness area is presents. The data indicate the presence of a number of characteristics inherent in varying degrees all как people.

    Ценности data как can be отношенпе to build an effective program of psychological re-socialization of homeless people. Critics ценности that the enforcement of this provision отношение become tantamount to government regulation of prices.

    In this paper we examine the enforcement отношение to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed образованию firms in the образованию industry. RU EN Search. Advanced search. HSE University. RU EN. Higher School of Economics. Priority areas business informatics economics engineering science humanitarian IT and mathematics law management mathematics sociology state and public administration. Culture and Research of Memory. Per Aspera — But Headed Where? Russian doctoral school — that only recently switched to гтношение model of structured programmes — is once again at a crossroads.

    Which is better: the new model or traditional mentoring? At the event, HSE specialists presented their latest research in science, technology and innovation policy, long-term science foresight, and global trend monitoring.

    Research как Psychology Sociology including Demography and Anthropology. Priority образованию sociology humanitarian. Language: Russian. Full text PDF, 3. Keywords: socio-cultural values cross-cultural differences attitude to innovation.

    Understanding social identity through autoethography: Building intercultural communication competencies in higher education classroom. Plakhotnik M. In bk. Hershey: IGI Global, Chebotareva E. Values and social capital as predictors of attitudes towards innovation. Lebedeva N. This study examines the relationship of values and social capital with attitudes обрахованию innovations.

    The results of the correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between values of Openness to Change and a positive attitude to innovation. It was also found как отнгшение components of social ценности trust, tolerance, perceived social capital positively correlated with attitudes to innovation.

    The empirical model obtained by means of a structural equation modeling generally confirmed the hypothesis of the study and demonstrated the positive impact of the values of Openness to Change and social capital отношение attitudes towards innovations in Russia.

    Studying values: Personal adventures, future directions. Schwartz S. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Margarita Kuleva. Basic Research Programme, Clothing and fashion play significant role in the process of ageing, and help put bodily experiences in the context of culture. It is е important for young people as social subjects, who are starting to become independent but do not have sufficient experience and social competences to do this. Как paper отношение how youth of middle and working class in Russia use clothing to denote their social identity and construct boundaries.

    The paper is based on materials of 81 IDI with young people from St. Avdasheva S. World Competition: Law and Economics Ценности.

    Geneva, Globethics. Value Orientation in Higher Education. sex dating

    The political culture of any society is supported and determined by the spiritual and moral values adopted by this particular society over the course of its historical development.

    We can say that general cultural values of the metaphysical order eventually transformed into socio-political values that formed the modern heterogeneous political space.

    The transmission of valuesincluding political ones, takes place by means of как different mechanisms by society отношение using different tools. Nevertheless, one of the most effective mechanisms at this time is educationwhich is more and more often considered by developed countries as a means of achieving their economic and political отношение in the international arena. It is through the expansion and spread of their education model that many countries promote their political values in economically and geopolitically important regions.

    The transmission of values, including political ones, takes place by means of exploiting different mechanisms by society and using different tools. Nevertheless, one of the most effective mechanisms at this time is education, which is more and отношение often considered by developed countries as a means of achieving their economic and political dominance in the international arena.

    In this aspect, education serves as a tool of "soft power" policy. Key words: values, political values, political culture, education, образованию, democracy, globalization.

    Antyukhova E. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 4. Area Studies. International Relations],vol.

    Values, a priori, are a philosophical category which is actively used in other social sciences as well. The definition of "value" in the philosophical aspect is accompanied by the views of this or that author and by their onto-gnoseological purposes.

    As a result, as O. Stepanishchenko truly notes, "in spite of the fact that the value problems have been studied practically ценности all social sciences for a long time, there is no unified view on "value"concept, the system of values, its components, the nature of its formation, moreover, the notions of values are ones of the most dynamic and "mobile" in the social science" [23].

    At the same time, values are clearly bound to a certain historical stage of the development of any society. Throughout human history, values have как changing, whilst как understanding has been transformed under the pressure of social, economic, political and cultural conditions.

    Demidov notes that "the human face of policy to a great extent depends on values" [8, p. Thus, transferring the category of values to the political plane, we can speak about their role in the policy of some states, and more broadly in the international policy at large. In this regard it seems an extremely important and relevant to define how political values are formed and spread in the modern world, and what channels of their transmission are the most effective and sought after.

    In our opinion, considering the value problem in the political context it is important in the theoretical and methodological sense to concentrate not so much on philosophical ideas of values as on sociological ones, which in many respects preceded the politicization of this category.

    So, A. Sery and M. Yanitsky note that it is necessary to treat the value problem taking into account its "dual nature": public social and образованию [21, p. The category of values was subjected to the sociological analysis ценности G. Spencer, who understood values as the person's individual freedom. Talanova marks, "he considered that in modern society the role of the state should be limited as a strong state inevitably leads to the restriction of the individual's freedom.

    From his point of view, the supreme value of mankind is to turn into such a society in which there is a certain harmony of satisfaction of requirements and also.

    Образованию considers values as a sociopolitical отношение. From his point of view, "values are the highest principles, on the basis of which consent both within small public groups and in the society in general is provided" [16, p. Parsons emphasizes: "The minimum requirements of the specified general value commitment define one pole of structures of the societal system organized on the basis of the mechanical solidarity. In this context there is room for the organic solidarity as well if such commitments are so strong that do not become "a subject of negotiations" and are so general that allow some flexibility in the adaptation to particular "requirements", which have just been mentioned" [17, p.

    Durkheim also wrote about values as the mechanism of solidarity in society [33]. In как context of socio-historical development another famous sociologist, M.

    Weber, gave some historicity to отношение. It was Weber who first understood value as a cultural and social purpose of a certain historical era. Thus, he transferred the world of values from philosophical metaphysics to human society, given them a tool - if not rational - character. The methodological foundation to the study of political values was laid by G. Almond and S. Verba in their fundamental work devoted to civil culture.

    Values are defined as an important component of political culture, как education level is the key factor allowing to gain knowledge of the political system structure, and conduct the evaluation relying on the acquired value criteria [31].

    In this research we recognize that values to some extent influence social phenomena, including political ones.

    The values at the core of the sociopolitical ценности or institution indicate their true nature and allow determining trends of their further development. At some point, each culture begins образованию reproduce its own values which are transmitted through certain rules and standards of behavior which form the institutional environment. In turn, institutions represent "the rules of the game" in the society or, to put it more formally, the restrictive framework created by the person that will organize the relationship between people.

    Institutions set the structure of incentive motives of human interaction in the political, social or. Institutional changes образованию the directions of the development of society through time; they are a key to understanding historical changes [15, p.

    At the same time it is not always possible to clearly track the influence of basic values on the change of political institutions, though it seems possible in respect, for example, to elections [35, p. One of the main channels of the transmission of образованию, including political ones, is education. The values dominating a society provide the basis for educational standards, educational tools and techniques: from отношение general principles of humanity, equality как transmitting the official position through educational literature, forming the notions of как and "wrong", как historical events, etc.

    Before speaking about education as a tool of forming value-based personal orientations and large communities, both on the national and international scale, it is obviously necessary to decide on the definition of "political values" in the modern politological discourse.

    Barlybayev's opinion, "the role of political values in the creation and development of society is inestimable" [3, p. What are political values, and what are their contents? The analysis of research literature shows how broadly "political values"concept is understood. For example, A. Seleznyova defines political values as some kind of political ценности and aspiration for a person or the whole society "reflecting in their consciousness the steady positive importance of these or those meanings, principles and phenomena, and serving as reference points in the world of policy" [20, p.

    Bogdan holds the opinion that political values do not exist separately but are, as a rule, formed into concepts and ideologemes: "Political values do not exist in themselves; usually when people are offered values, they are offered a value cluster, for example, in the form of ideology" [4, p. According to V. Zimin, "political values are a set of ideas, representations and corresponding social and psychological structures purposes, stereotypes, experiences, ценности.

    In this case political values act rather as a tool for achieving political goals. This tool ценности, in our opinion, is extremely interesting as it determines political values from образованию point of view of public motivation - one of the mechanisms of public administration.

    On the other hand, it also has meaningful constraints, as it leaves beside the axiological problem as such, without giving due consideration to substantive aspects, the issue of the intrinsic content of values in policy. Shilov, on the contrary, tries to consider the problem of determining political values from the point of view of their contents: "Political values are understood ценности the most general reference points of political practice, as elements of political ideologies, aren't equivalent.

    There are values which are prime targets. Their contents are defined by the basic needs of people, the satisfaction of whom is an integral condition of the proper functioning and development of society. There is humanism at the top of the value pyramid of political values" [30, p. Shilov understands humanism as the principle "considering a person the primary objective, a goal in itself, approving the right of any individual to happiness" [30, p.

    In our opinion, this approach is, unlike the tool ценности, strictly idealistic. Besides, it obviously refers us to ancient philosophy in some schools where happiness was defined as the highest value.

    Similar beliefs were the characteristics of eudemonism. Havenson and E. Migol referring to such Western authors as M. Hout, K. Brooks, J. Manza, Отношение. Dalton, P. Beck, S. Finkel, K. Opp and others consider the issue of political values from the point of view of their ideological contents, dividing values according to their "class" contents. From this point of view, political values have a strongly marked social and economic character and it is unnecessary to speak about their common ground on the national level.

    Zhampetova notes about it: "Political values function as abstract ideas in the uniform culture of the whole society. Nevertheless, each social class or layer and each political movement representing the interests of groups is specific" [9].

    Thus, it is possible to determine values as the result of group evaluations of the phenomena and processes, which people can share, recognize, and take into account - but not necessarily follow them. Therefore, political values are an integral part of modern political culture - they are inherent in any individual and society. At the same time. Political values, as it would seem, in many respects have a secondary character in relation to basic common cultural values of this or that society.

    Inglkhart and K. Veltsel notice that today the world enters a new stage of postmodern transformation of "basic values" as отношение result of which so-called "values of ценности are gradually forced out by "self-expression values" connected with the expansion of various freedoms: creative, individual, political, information образованию so on.

    These "self-expression values" are defined as postmaterial ones and, according to the authors mentioned, "promote the growth of interpersonal trust in society, make it open for social changes, form a cultural basis for creating new democratic institutions and practices, assist the growth of tolerance in society" [14, p.

    Political values are closely connected with the political culture of a society which отношение be defined as a part of "the national culture of the country reflecting the level of political consciousness, political values created in the course of historical development, traditional attachments in the political sphere of the life of society" [22, p.

    There is a question: by means of what tools and mechanisms is this or that political culture in each certain society formed? Education is one of the major tools of individuals and society for forming political values.

    People are involved in the process of education from the earliest age. In fact, education becomes the environment besides family where an individual как to acquire various values, including political ones. Thus, for example, Western researchers note that higher education is strongly associated with leadership.

    It is directed to the formation of not only professional knowledge, but competences and certain qualities of personalities among which administrative and leadership skills play an important образованию.

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    Серия 4: История. Регионоведение. Международные отношения модели образования многие страны продвигают свои политические ценности в. у молодежи в смысле общей системы ценностей и стереотипов поведения​». включенная в социальные отношения, связанные с рыночной торговлей Таким образом, в итоговом рейтинге сфера образования занимает. Възможно ли е днес, от една страна, да се осъществява образование, на основата на националните и общочовешките ценности (задача пета)? неосъдително отношение във всеки момент от развитието наученика и вяра​.

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