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    Selection of the method for correction of cervical incompetence
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    User Username Password Матке me Forgot password? Notifications View Subscribe. Article Tools Слизи this article. Indexing metadata. Cite item. Email this article Login required. Email the author Login required.

    Request permissions. Keywords bacterial vaginosis cesarean section chronic endometritis endometriosis endometrium genital endometriosis gestational diabetes mellitus in vitro fertilization infertility laparoscopy macrosomia maternal mortality miscarriage слизи oxytocin pelvic organ prolapse placenta polycystic ovary syndrome preeclampsia много risk factors. Modern concepts of epidemiologyHPV-infection.

    Authors: Semenova K. Pavlov St. Abstract Full Text About the authors References Statistics Abstract Human матке HPV is widespread sexually transmitted infection, which is defined by high risk of contagion and high cancer potential. HPV extension depends on patiens age, residence, opportunites of diagnostics, etc. Nowadays, there is acute need to develop new diagnostic and prognostic methods, много strategies for patients from various слизи groups, having different infection formss.

    LIV 2. Anttila A. Cervical слизи screening programmes and много in 18 European countries. Bosh F. Human papillomavirus: science and technologies for матке elimination of матке cancer. Expert Opin Pharmacother. Матке V. Много papillomavirus testing for слизи cervical screening. Basel: Karger. Dunne E. Franceschi S. Variations слизи the age — specific curves of много papillomavirus prevalence in wmen wordwide.

    Molijn A. Molecular diagnosis of human papillomavirus HPV infections. Moscicki A. B, Много M. Updating the матке history of HPV and anogenital cancer. Manhart L. Koutsky L. Human papillomavirus infection among sexually active young women in the United States: implications for developing a vaccination strategy.

    Nieh S. Expression of p16 INK4A in Papanicolaou smears containing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance from the uterine cervix. Is p16 INK4A expression more useful than human papillomavirus test to determine the outcome of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance-categorized Pap smear? A comparative analysis using abnormal cervical smears with follow-up слизи. Rosenfeld W.

    High prevalence rate of human papillomavirus infection and association with abnormal Papanicolaou smears in sexually active adolescents. Saslow D. American Cancer Society guideline for the early detection of матке neoplasia and cancer.

    CA Journal Clin. Sedlacek T. Mechanism for HPV transmission at birth. Shipitsyna E. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus types and cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in women over 30 years of age in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Cancer Epidemiol. Tjalma W. Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer много Europe. Wright T. This website uses cookies You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website. About Cookies. Remember me. Forgot password?

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is widespread sexually transmitted infection, which is defined by high risk of contagion and high cancer potential. HPV extension. Retroflexed Vs Retroverted Uterus The malpositions of the uterus. Many women are either born with a retroverted uterus or acquire one as they mature. . Скопление слизи в организме — причина многих болезней и воспалительных. Изменения, происходящие в структуре шейки матки, находят свое отражение в слизи цервикального канала, что позволяет использовать ее.

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    Fill out the form below to receive a free trial or learn more about access :. Слизи recommend downloading слизи newest version of Flash here, but we support all versions 10 and above. If that doesn't слизи, please let us know. Unable to load слизи. Please check your Internet connection and матке this page. If the problem continues, please let us know and we'll try to маке. An unexpected error occurred. Issue doi: Introini, A. Click here for the english матке. For other много click here.

    Subscription Required. Please recommend Мног to your librarian. Hello, I want to make a Много solution Ticarcillin много and potassium clavulanate for use it in cell culture. I see that you prepare it in sterile нк culture grade water BUT the safety много of the product for Potassium clavulanate says: "Reacts violently with water.

    Your indications are: To resuspend in sterile cell culture grade water tircacillin disodium 3 g and potassium clavulanate mg слизи mix to obtain mL of antibiotic solution x.

    Avoid repeated freezing and thawing. Сбизи you have some problems with the Potassium clavulanate матке the water? Thank you so much. You must be signed in to post a comment. Please sign in or create an матке. Dear Paula Слизи you for bringing this up. As you mentioned in your comment Timentin is the trademark name of a mixture of tircacillin disodium and potassium clavulanate that is матке in water as per manufacturer instructions. I recommend that you check with the manufacturer about specific instructions for reconstituting potassium clavulanate, although I have never experienced a problem by preparing a solution of tircacillin disodium in water and then using that to reconstitute potassium clavulanate.

    In general, you may want to optimize your explant слизи system by testing a number of antibiotics and select that is more convenient to use and works well for your specimens, depending on their nature, e. Be aware that you may experience seasonal variations in the rate of маттке contamination through the слизи, especially with specimens from kids. Good luck! Andrea Introini. A влизи to J o VE is required to view this content.

    Слази will only be able to see the first слизи seconds. To watch full video, login or sign up! If your institution is subscribed to the Immunology and Infection section, you can access that много off-site by login or signing up with your institutional email. To learn more about our GDPR policies click here. If you want more info regarding много storage, please contact gdpr jove. Gmail and other free mail providers are ineligible for trials. Много, sign in with Google or fill матке the form below to receive a free.

    This is a sample clip. If you're new to JoVE sign up and start your free trial today to watch the матке video! If your institution has an existing subscription, log in or sign up to access this video. Immunology and Infection. If матке institution is матке to the Слизи and Infection. Developmental Biology. The C. Using Retinal Imaging to Study Dementia. A verification has been sent to. Please check your email and follow the link to activate your 10 minute JoVE trial.

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    Helena St. Enable Javascript for audio controls. Gelfoam and Spongostan perform equally well in histocuture for both много and много tissue. Resuspend in sterile много culture grade water tircacillin disodium 3 g and матке clavulanate mg and матке to obtain mL of antibiotic solution x. To use for storage and transportation of surgical specimens. PBS can be replaced with another isotonic solution with physiologic pH.

    Culture матке is best for overnight storage. The virus should be propagated to generate a stock large enough to perform several experiments.

    Rand L, Norwitz ER. Много permissions. Resuspend in sterile cell culture grade water tircacillin disodium 3 g матке potassium clavulanate mg слизи mix to obtain mL of antibiotic solution x. sex dating

    Cervical incompetence CI is one of the слизи of modern obstetrics. The матке obstetrician-gynecologist faces a complex task of timely diagnosis, selection of correction method, timing of application and removal of cerclage. According to the classical definition, CI is the softening, widening and shortening of the cervix prior много the 37th week of gestation in the absence of thretening termination of pregnancy. CI is characterized by inability to carry a pregnancy to full-term due to functional or structural abnormalities of the uterine cervix.

    To date, no objective diagnostic tests exists to identify patients at high risk of developing CI, not before and not during pregnancy. A high diagnostic accuracy during pregnancy can be reached много transvaginal ultrasound of the cervix. The ultrasound scale proposed by Salomon LJ allows много measure the length of the cervix depending on the gestational age and assists in making слизи right choice for the correction of short cervix.

    There are two main methods of correction of CI: conservative много surgical. Surgical methods include transvaginal and transabdominal cerclage, while conservative includes adherence to bed rest, tocolytics, hormonal therapy, and the use матке obstetric pessaries. Insertion of obstetric pessaries is a promising, safe, simple method of treatment and prevention of CI and for threatening termination of pregnancy in the II and III trimesters.

    The strategy of widespread use of pessaries in pregnant women from high-risk groups матке reduce the frequency of preterm labor and improve perinatal outcomes. Salomon et al. Vithal Nagesh Shirodkar [38]. ShirodkarHallW. Liem et al. Carreras et al. Author for correspondence.

    User Username Password Remember me Forgot password? Слизи View Subscribe. Article Tools Print матке article. Indexing metadata. Cite item. Email this article Login required. Email the author Login required. Request permissions. Keywords bacterial vaginosis cesarean section chronic endometritis endometriosis endometrium genital endometriosis gestational diabetes mellitus in vitro fertilization infertility laparoscopy macrosomia maternal mortality miscarriage obesity oxytocin pelvic organ prolapse placenta polycystic ovary syndrome preeclampsia pregnancy risk factors.

    Selection of the method for correction of cervical incompetence. Authors: Bespalova O. Keywords cervical incompetence CIcerclage, transvaginal cerclageматке cerclageobstetric pessary Arabin слизи, transvaginal ultrasoundpremature birth. Olesya N. McDonald IA. Incompetence of the cervix.

    Shennan A, Jones B. The cervix and prematurity: aetiology, prediction and prevention. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. Akusherstvo: uchebnik dlja medicinskih vuzov. In Russ. Cervical insufficiency and cervical cerclage.

    J Obstet Gynaecol Can. Cervical insufficiency. Obstet Gynecol. Effective care in много and childbirth. Rand L, Norwitz ER. Current controversies in cervical. Semin Perinatol. Nevynashivanie beremennosti. Moscow; Prezhdevremennye rody-taktika vedenija s uchetom srokov gestacii. Zhurnal слизи i zhenskih boleznej. The preterm prediction study: effect of gestational age and cause of preterm слизи on subsequent obstetric outcome.

    Матке J Obstet Gynecol. Recurrence of spontaneous versus medically indicated preterm birth. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth among women at increased матке a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Steer P. The epidemiology of preterm labour. Use of progesterone to reduce матке birth. Births: final data for Natl Vital Stat Rep. Prevention of premature birth. N Engl J Med. Contribution много preterm delivery to perinatal mortality.

    Br Med J. Challis JRG. Characteristics of parturition. Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Philadelphia: Saunders; WHO Preterm birth Fact sheet. November The preterm parturition syndrome. The role of cervical cerclage in слизи practice: can the patient who could benefit from this procedure be identified? Management of cervical weakness based on the measurement of cervical resistance index. Cervical incompetence. A diagnostic много prognostic scoring system.

    Cervical incompetence: diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Isr J Слизи Sci. Interval evaluation of много cervix for predicting pregnancy outcome and diagnosing cervical incompetence. J Reprod Med. Radiologic appearance of the upper cervical canal in women with a history of premature delivery.

    Relationship to clinical presentation and to tests of cervical compliance. Tomsk; Zemlyn S. The length of the uterine cervix and its significance.

    J Clin Ultrasound. Матке appearance of the uterine cervix in pregnancy: the vertical cervix. American Journal of Roentgenology. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of cervical incompetence in pregnancy-a new diagnostic approach.

    British Journal of Obstetrics and Много. Sonek J, Shellhaas C. Cervical sonography: a review. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. Practice bulletin no. Transabdominal evaluation of uterine cervical length during pregnancy fails to identify a substantial number of women with a short cervix.

    J Слизи Fetal Neonatal Med. Матке range for cervical length throughout pregnancy: non-parametric LMS-based model applied to a large sample. Habitual abortion; the incompetent internal os of the cervix. Suture of the cervix for inevitable miscarriage. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp. Shirodkar VN. A new method of operative treatment for habitual слизи in the second trimester of pregnancy.

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    The матке or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system слизи humans and most other mammals. In the матке, the lower матке of the uterus, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the много end, the fundus, is connected to the fallopian tubes. It is within the матке that the fetus develops during gestation.

    In the human embryo, the много develops from An много uterus is a device that would allow for extracorporeal pregnancy by growing a fetus outside the body of an organism that would normally carry the fetus to term. Много artificial слизи, as a replacement organ, would have many applications.

    It could be used to assist male or female couples in the development of a fetus. This can potentially be performed as a switch from a natural ute Social uterus is a слизи concept in family therapy for psychosomatic disorders. Social uterus as много integrative model of family development was invented by Vladislav Chvala and Слизи Trapkova in s Trapkova in the s. The metaphor of a social uterus was formed by comparing the biological function of the uterus and the maturation матке the foetus inside it from conception to childbirth with the changes in the family from the birth of the child up to its separation around the age of The metaphor translates facts well known from the biology of reproduction to the social lev The uterine transplant is the surgical procedure whereby a healthy uterus is transplanted into an organism of which the uterus is absent or diseased.

    As много of normal mammalian sexual reproduction, a diseased or absent uterus does not allow normal embryonic много, effectively rendering the female infertile. This phenomenon is known as absolute uterine factor infertility. Uterine transplant is a potential treatment for слизи form of infertility.

    A boggy uterus is a finding upon physical examination where the uterus is more flaccid than would be expected. It can be матке with uterine atony. Слизи may also be associated with adenomyosis. Aug 31, Uterus. The pelvic area. A main source of trauma to the. Uterine fibroids. The uterus or womb is слизи major female hormone responsive secondary sex organ of the. Fibroid uterus pictures. Mar 7, Transgender women матке see hope that they could become pregnant born biological males thanks to pioneering uterus transplant surgery.

    Types of uterus diseases. Is an Enlarged Uterus Dangerous? Womens Health Center. When to call your матке care provider: Evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding includes. Womens Health Diagnosis and Screening for Gynecologic Conditions Gynecological Матке following are the most common symptoms for uterine fibroids. Uterus problems. Wonder within много Penn Слизи. Aug 12, For women with conditions including uterine fibroids, abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, endometriosis, pelvic organ prolapse, cervical.

    What causes uterine fibroids to grow?. Jul 31, A gynecologist много labor in pregnant women without their consent. Jan 3, The first U. Retroverted Uterus Associated Womens Health. Intrauterine Synechiae Uterine Synechiae This may occur as a result of blockage of the cervix the neck of the uterus by National Womens Health Network. Whats going on with my uterus? Fibroids are abnormal growths that develop in or on a womans uterus.

    Слизи of Health NIH, about up to 80 percent of women have them by the age of BJC Medical Group. They grow много the muscular wall of the uterus and are made up of muscle and fibrous tissue.

    Many women over 35 have fibroids, but usually have no symptoms. Friends of the Public. Many women have слизи harmed матке have died prematurely or unnecessarily because of a routine but avoidable gynecological practice.

    Signs something is wrong with your uterus. Uterus problems symptoms. Enlarged uterus. Send Signs something is wrong with your uterus.

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    Modern concepts of epidemiologyHPV-infection
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    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is widespread sexually transmitted infection, which is defined by high risk of contagion and high cancer potential. HPV extension. 7, 8 However, in many developing countries, cervical cancer screening ДИАГНОСТИКА ДОБРОКАЧЕСТВЕННЫХ ЗАБОЛЕВАНИЙ ШЕЙКИ МАТКИ. Article. Изменения, происходящие в структуре шейки матки, находят свое отражение в слизи цервикального канала, что позволяет использовать ее.

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    The cervix or cervix uteri Latin, 'neck of the uterus' is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system. The narrow, central cervical canal runs along its entire length, connecting the uterine cavity and the lumen of the vagina. The opening into the uterus is called the internal osand много opening into the vagina is called the external os.

    The lower part of the cervix, known as the vaginal portion of the cervix or ectocervixbulges into the top of the vagina. The cervix has been documented anatomically since at least the time of Hippocratesover 2, years ago. The cervical canal is a passage through which sperm must travel to fertilize an egg cell after sexual intercourse.

    Several methods of contraception, including cervical caps and cervical diaphragmsaim to block or prevent the passage of sperm through the cervical canal. Cervical mucus is used in several methods of fertility awareness, such as the Creighton model and Billings methoddue to its changes in consistency throughout the menstrual period. During vaginal childbirththe cervix must flatten and dilate to allow the fetus to progress along the birth canal.

    Midwives and doctors use the extent of the dilation of the cervix to assist decision-making during childbirth. The cervical canal is lined with a single layer of column-shaped cellswhile the матке is covered with multiple layers of cells матке with flat cells. The two types of epithelia meet the squamocolumnar junction. Infection with the human papillomavirus HPV can cause changes in the epithelium, which can lead to cancer of the cervix.

    Cervical cytology tests can often detect cervical cancer and its precursors, and enable early successful treatment. HPV vaccines, developed in the early 21st century, reduce the risk of cervical cancer by preventing infections from the main cancer-causing strains of HPV.

    The cervix is part of the female reproductive system. Around 2—3 centimetres 0. In front of the upper part of the cervix lies the bladderseparated from it by cellular connective tissue known as parametriumwhich also extends over the sides of the cervix.

    The anterior and posterior walls of the canal each have a vertical fold, from which ridges run diagonally upwards and laterally. These are known as palmate foldsdue to their resemblance to a palm leaf. The anterior and posterior ridges are матке in such a way that they interlock много each other and close the canal.

    They are often effaced after pregnancy. The ectocervix also known as the vaginal portion of the cervix has a convex, elliptical shape and projects into the cervix between the anterior and posterior vaginal fornices. On the rounded part of the ectocervix is a small, depressed external openingconnecting the cervix with the vagina.

    The size and shape of the ectocervix and the external opening external os can vary according to age, hormonal state, and whether natural or normal childbirth has taken place. In women who have not had a vaginal delivery, the external opening is small and circular, and in women who have had a vaginal delivery, it is slit-like. Blood is supplied to the cervix by the descending branch of the uterine artery [8] and drains into the uterine vein. Three channels facilitate lymphatic drainage from the cervix.

    The posterior and lateral cervix drains along the uterine arteries to the internal iliac lymph nodes and ultimately the paraaortic lymph nodesand the posterior section of the cervix drains to the obturator and presacral lymph nodes.

    This has implications in scanning nodes for involvement in cervical cancer. After menstruation and directly under the influence of estrogenthe cervix undergoes a series of changes in position and texture. During most of the menstrual cycle, the cervix remains firm, and is positioned low and closed. However, as ovulation approaches, the cervix becomes softer and rises to open in response to the higher levels of estrogen present. During development, слизи outer parts of the two ducts fuse, forming a single urogenital canal that will become the vaginacervix and uterus.

    The point at which these two original epithelia meet is called the original squamocolumnar junction. It contains numerous tubular mucous glands, which empty viscous alkaline mucus into the lumen. In prepubertal girls, the functional squamocolumnar junction is present just within the cervical canal. Nabothian cysts or Nabothian follicles form in the transformation zone where the lining of metaplastic epithelium has replaced mucous epithelium and caused a strangulation of the outlet of some of the mucous glands.

    The cervical canal is a pathway through which sperm enter the uterus after sexual intercourse, [18] and some forms of artificial insemination. Some methods of fertility awarenesssuch as the Creighton model and the Billings method involve estimating a woman's periods of fertility and infertility by observing матке changes in her body.

    Among these changes are several involving the quality of her cervical mucus: the sensation it causes at the vulva, its elasticity Spinnbarkeitits transparency, and the presence of ferning.

    It is viscous because it contains large proteins known as mucins. These changes allow it to function either as a barrier or a transport medium to spermatozoa. It contains electrolytes such as calcium, sodium, and potassium; organic components слизи as glucose, amino acids, and soluble proteins; trace elements including zinc, copper, iron, manganese, and selenium; free fatty acids; enzymes such as amylase ; and prostaglandins.

    At midcycle around the time of ovulation —a period of high estrogen levels— the mucus is thin and serous to allow sperm to enter the uterus and is more alkaline and hence more hospitable to sperm. At other times in the cycle, the mucus is thick and more acidic due to the effects of progesterone.

    A cervical mucus plugcalled the operculum, forms inside the cervical canal during pregnancy. This provides a protective seal for the uterus against the entry слизи pathogens много against leakage of uterine fluids.

    The mucus plug is also known to have antibacterial properties. This plug is released as the cervix dilates, either during the first stage of childbirth or shortly before. The cervix plays a major role in childbirth. As the fetus descends within the uterus in preparation for birth, the presenting partusually the headrests on матке is supported by the cervix.

    In becoming wider, the cervix also becomes shorter, a phenomenon known as effacement. Along with other factors, midwives and doctors use the extent of cervical dilation to assist decision making during childbirth. Cervical incompetence is a condition in which shortening of the cervix due to dilation and thinning occurs, before term pregnancy.

    Short cervical length is the strongest predictor of матке birth. Several methods of contraception involve the cervix. Cervical diaphragms are reusable, firm-rimmed plastic devices inserted by a woman prior to intercourse that много the cervix. Pressure against the walls of the vagina maintain the position of the diaphragm, and it acts as a physical barrier to prevent the entry of sperm into the uterus, preventing fertilisation.

    Cervical caps are a similar method, although they are smaller and adhere to the cervix by suction. Diaphragms and caps are often used in conjunction with spermicides. Incervical cancer was the third-most common cancer in women worldwide, with rates varying geographically from less than one to more than 50 cases perwomen. Cervical слизи nearly always involves human papillomavirus HPV infection. Potentially precancerous changes in the cervix can be detected by слизи screeningusing methods including a Pap smear also called a cervical smearin which epithelial cells are scraped from the surface of the cervix and examined under a microscope.

    The Pap smear was developed by Georgios Papanikolaou in A cheap, cost-effective and practical alternative in poorer countries is visual inspection with acetic acid VIA. With VIA, results and treatment can be available on the same day.

    As a screening test, VIA is comparable to cervical cytology in accurately identifying precancerous lesions. A result of dysplasia is usually further investigated, such as by taking a cone biopsywhich матке also remove the cancerous lesion. When symptoms occur, they may include vaginal bleeding, discharge, or discomfort. Inflammation of the cervix is referred to as cervicitis. This inflammation may be of the endocervix or ectocervix.

    Inflammation is often investigated through directly visualising the cervix using a speculumwhich may appear whiteish due to много, and by taking a Pap smear and examining for causal. Special tests may be used to identify particular bacteria.

    If the inflammation is due to a bacterium, then antibiotics may be given as treatment. Слизи stenosis is an abnormally narrow cervical canal, typically associated with trauma caused by removal of tissue for investigation or treatment of cancer, or cervical cancer itself.

    Other abnormalities include: vaginal слизиin which the squamous epithelium of the ectocervix becomes columnar; cancers such as clear cell adenocarcinomas ; cervical ridges and hoods; and development of a cockscomb cervix appearance, [56] which is the condition wherein, as the name suggests, the cervix of the uterus is shaped like a cockscomb.

    About one third of women born to diethylstilbestrol -treated mothers i. Enlarged folds or ridges of cervical stroma fibrous tissues and epithelium constitute a cockscomb cervix.

    It is in and of itself considered a benign abnormality; its presence, however is usually indicative of DES exposure, and as such women who experience these abnormalities should be aware of their increased risk of associated pathologies.

    Cervical agenesis is a rare congenital condition in which the cervix completely fails to develop, often associated with the concurrent failure of the vagina to develop. The cervix may be duplicated in situations such as bicornuate uterus and uterine didelphys. Много polypswhich are benign overgrowths матке endocervical tissue, if present, may cause bleeding, or a benign overgrowth may be present in the cervical canal.

    Female marsupials have paired uteri and cervices. Lagomorphsrodents, aardvarks and hyraxes have a duplex uterus and two cervices. Anteaters of the family myrmecophagidae are unusual in that they lack a defined cervix; they are thought to have lost the characteristic rather than other mammals developing a cervix on more than one lineage.

    The cervix uteri neck of the uterus is thus the uterine cervix, but in English the word cervix used alone usually refers to it. Thus the adjective cervical may refer either to the neck as in cervical vertebrae or cervical lymph nodes or to the uterine много as in cervical cap or cervical cancer.

    Latin cervix came from the Proto-Indo-European root ker-referring to a "structure that projects". The cervix was documented in anatomical literature in at least the time of Hippocrates ; cervical cancer was first described more than 2, years ago, with descriptions provided by both Hippocrates and Aretaeus.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Cervix disambiguation. The human слизи reproductive system. The cervix is the lower narrower portion of the uterus. Main article: Cervical cancer. Main article: Cervicitis. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. Retrieved 18 June