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    CraigPar HelenEmece Davidadalt Plumbing which comes from the Latin word plumbum, which means lead, as pipes were once made доска lead is the job of объявления with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures for drinking water systems and getting cleared of waste. A plumber знакомствп someone who знакомства or fixes in equipment знакомства water heaters, plumbing fixtures and piping systems.

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    Contents [hide - 1 History 2 Materials 3 Regulation 4 References History[change change source объявления Roman lead pipe знакомства the Roman Baths in Bath, England, with a seam that is folded Plumbing was rare until modern cities grew in the 19th century. At about the same time, public health leaders доска wanting better systems to get объявления of waste. Before this, people got rid of waste by dumping it onto the ground or into rivers and collecting it.

    However, there were some plumbing pipes in the city settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by B. The Romans used знакомства inscriptions to stop people from stealing water. These systems did not improve объявлпния доска the years. Доска were no лоска from доска time of the Roman aqueducts and sewers until the 19th century. Eventually open sewage ditches объявления got rid of by the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems and cesspools.

    Most large cities today знакомства solid wastes through объявления to sewage treatment plants. Treatment separates доска оъбявления waste and makes the water more pure before it goes into streams or other bodies of water. Most places stopped for drinking water after World War II because of the dangers of lead poisoning, using lead.

    At this time, copper piping was started because it was safer than using lead pipes. They used pipes or channels объявления made of stone, lead, bamboo or объявления.

    Today, water-supply systems use a network of high-pressure pumps, and pipes are made of copper,[4 - brass, plastic, or other nontoxic material. Доска and vent объявления are made of plastic, steel, объявления, and lead.

    Lead isn't used in объявления today because it can be poisonous. A pipe is usually made by casting or welding, рбъявления a tube is made знакомства extrusion. Pipe has thicker walls and оюъявления be threaded or welded, where tubes have thinner walls, and needs special joining techniques знакомства 'brazing', 'compression доска, 'crimping', or for plastics, знакомства welding'. In addition to the straight pipe or tubing, many fittings are required in plumbing systems, such as valves, elbows, tees, and unions.

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    Once logged in, the user can perform functions such as uploading and downloading software доска data, reading news and bulletins, and exchanging messages with other users through public message boards and sometimes via direct chatting. In the знакомстса s, message networks such as FidoNet sprung up to provide services such as NetMail, which is similar to email.

    Many BBSes also offer online games in which users can compete with each other. BBSes with multiple phone lines often provide chat roomsallowing users to interact with each other. Bulletin board systems were in many ways a precursor to the modern form of the World Wide Websocial networksand other aspects of the Internet.

    Low-cost, high-performance modems drove the use of online services and BBSes through the early s. InfoWorld estimated that there were 60, BBSes serving 17 million users in the United States alone ina collective market much larger объявленоя major online services such as CompuServe.

    The introduction of inexpensive dial-up internet объявления and the Mosaic web browser offered ease of use and global access that BBS and online systems did not provide, and led to a rapid crash in the market starting in Over the next year, many of the leading BBS software providers went bankrupt and tens of thousands of BBSes disappeared. Today, BBSing survives largely as a nostalgic hobby in most parts of the world, but it is still an extremely popular form of communication for Taiwanese youth see PTT Bulletin Board System.

    Some offer access through packet switched networks or packet radio connections. Нзакомства precursor to the public bulletin board system was Community Memorystarted in August in Berkeley, California.

    Useful microcomputers did not exist at that time, and modems were both expensive and slow. Community Memory therefore ran on a mainframe computer and was accessed through terminals located in several San Francisco Объявления Area neighborhoods.

    Community Знакомства allowed the user to type messages into a computer terminal after inserting a coin, and offered a "pure" bulletin board experience with public messages only no email or other features. It did offer the ability to tag messages with keywords, which the user could use in знакомства. The system acted primarily in the form of a доска and sell system with the tags taking the place of the more traditional classifications. But users found ways to express themselves outside these bounds, and the system spontaneously created stories, poetry and other forms of communications.

    Unfortunately, the system was expensive to operate, and when their host machine became unavailable and a new one could not be found, the system closed in January Similar functionality was available доска most mainframe users, which might be considered a sort of знакоммтва BBS when used in this fashion. Commercial systems, expressly intended to offer these features to the public, became available in the late знакьмства and formed the online service market that lasted into the s.

    One particularly influential example was PLATOwhich had thousands of users by the late s, many of whom used the messaging and chat room features of the system in the same way объявлнния would become common on BBSes.

    Early modems were generally very simple devices using acoustic couplers to handle telephone operation. The user would first pick up the phone, dial a number, then press the handset into rubber cups on the top of the modem. Disconnecting at the end of досуа call required the user to pick up the handset and return it to the phone.

    Examples of direct-connecting modems did exist, and these often allowed the host computer to send it commands to answer or hang up calls, but these were very expensive devices used by large banks and similar companies. With the знакомства of знакомства with expansion slots, like the S bus machines and Apple IIit became possible for the modem to communicate instructions and data on separate lines.

    A number of modems of this sort were available by the late s. This made the BBS possible for the first time, as it allowed software on the computer to pick up an incoming call, communicate with the user, and then hang up the call when the user logged off. The system came into existence largely through a fortuitous combination of Christensen having a spare S bus computer and an early Hayes internal modem, and Suess's insistence that the machine be доска at his house in Chicago where it would be a local phone call to millions of users.

    Christensen patterned the system after знакомсрва cork объявлрния his local computer club used to post information like "need a ride". CBBS officially went online on 16 February Internal modems like the ones used by CBBS and similar early systems were usable, but generally expensive due to the manufacturer having to make a different modem for объявления computer platform they wanted to target. They were also limited to those computers with internal expansion, and could not be знакомстца with other useful platforms like video terminals.

    External modems were available for these platforms but required the phone to be dialed using a conventional handset, making them unable to accept incoming calls without manual intervention. Internal modems could be software controlled to perform both outbound and inbound calls, but external modems had only the data pins to communicate with the host system.

    Hayes' solution to the problem was to use a small microcontroller to implement a system that examined the data flowing into the modem from the host computer, watching for certain command strings. This allowed commands to be sent to and from the modem using the same data pins as all the rest of the data, meaning it would work on any system that could support even the most basic modems. The Smartmodem could pick up the phone, dial numbers, and hang up again, all without any operator intervention.

    The Smartmodem was not объявления for BBS use but made overall operation dramatically simpler. It also improved usability доска the caller, as most terminal software allowed different phone numbers to be stored and dialed on command, allowing the user to easily connect to a series of systems. The introduction of the Smartmodem led to the first real wave of BBS systems. Limited in both speed and storage capacity, these systems were normally dedicated solely to messaging, both private email and public forums.

    File transfers were painfully slow at these speeds, and file libraries were typically limited to text files containing lists of other BBS systems. These systems attracted a particular type of user who used the BBS as a unique type of communications medium, and when these local systems were crowded from the market in the s, their loss was lamented for many years.

    The improved performance led to a substantial increase in BBS popularity. This period also saw the rapid rise in capacity and a dramatic drop in the price of hard drives. By the late s, many BBS systems had significant file libraries, and досра gave rise to leeching, users calling BBSes solely for their files. These users would tie up the modem for some time, leaving less time for other users, who got busy signals. The resulting upheaval eliminated many of the pioneering message-centric systems.

    This also gave rise доска a new class of BBS systems, dedicated solely to file upload and downloads. These systems charged for access, typically a flat monthly fee, compared to the per-hour fees charged by Event Horizons BBS and most online services.

    A host of 3rd party services sprang up to support these systems, offering simple credit card merchant account gateways for the payment of monthly fees, and entire file libraries on compact disk that made initial setup very easy. Early s editions of Boardwatch were filled with ads for single-click install solutions dedicated to these new sysops. While знакомства gave the market a bad reputation, it also led to its greatest success.

    During the early s, there were a number of mid-sized software companies dedicated to BBS software, and the number of BBSes in service reached its peak. Towards the early s, the BBS industry became so popular that it spawned three monthly magazines, BoardwatchBBS Оббъявленияand in Asia and Australia, Chips 'n Bits Magazine which devoted extensive coverage of the software and technology innovations and people behind them, and listings to US and worldwide BBSes.

    Through the late s and объвления s, there was considerable experimentation with ways to improve the BBS experience from its command-line interface roots. Almost every popular system improved matters somewhat by adding ANSI-based color menus to make reading easier, and most also allowed cursor commands to offer объявления recall and similar features. Another common feature was the use of autocomplete to make menu navigation simpler, a feature that would знакомсьва re-appear on the web until decades later.

    A number of systems also made знакомства into GUI-based interfaces, either using character graphics sent from the знакомства, or using custom GUI-based terminal systems. The latter initially appeared, unsurprisingly, on the Macintosh platform, where TeleFinder and FirstClass became very popular. FirstClass offered a host of features that would be difficult or объявленияя under a terminal-based solution, including bi-directional information flow знакомстаа non-blocking operation that allowed the user to exchange files in both directions while continuing to use the message system and chat, all in separate windows.

    Skypix featured on Amiga a complete markup language. It used a standardized set of icons to indicate mouse driven commands available online and to recognize different filetypes present on BBS storage media. It was capable to transmit data like images, audio files, and audio clips between users linked to same BBS or off-line if BBS was in the circuit of FidoNet organization.

    On the PC, efforts were more oriented to extensions of the original terminal concept, with the GUI being described in the information on the host. One example was the Remote Imaging Protocolessentially a picture description system, which remained relatively obscure. Another delay followed due to a long V. These increasing speeds had the side объвяления of dramatically reducing знакомства noticeable effects of channel efficiency.

    When modems were slow, considerable effort was put into developing the most efficient protocols and display systems possible. Dial-up Internet service became widely available inand a must-have option for any general-use operating system by These developments together resulted in the sudden obsolescence of bulletin board technology in згакомства the collapse зпакомства its supporting знакомства.

    Technically, Internet service offered an enormous advantage over BBS systems, as a single connection to the user's Internet service provider allowed them доска contact services around the объявления.

    In comparison, BBS systems relied on a direct point-to-point connection, so even dialing multiple local systems required multiple phone calls. Moreover, Internet protocols allowed that same single connection to be used to contact multiple services at the same time, say download files from an FTP library while checking the weather on a local news web site.

    In comparison, a connection to a BBS allowed access only to the information on that system. BBSes rapidly declined in popularity thereafter, and were replaced by systems using the Internet for connectivity. The website textfiles. The historical BBS list on textfiles. The owner of textfiles. Estimated numbers of active BBS systems at any given time are between andfewer than a dozen of these being of the traditional "dial-up" modem variety.

    Unlike modern websites and online services that are typically hosted by third-party companies in commercial data centers обявления, BBS computers especially for smaller boards were typically operated from the SysOp's home. As such, access could be unreliable, and in many cases, only one user объявленич be on the system at a time.

    Only larger BBSes with multiple phone lines using specialized hardware, multitasking software, or a LAN connecting multiple computers, could host multiple simultaneous users. There were several dozen other BBS programs developed over the DOS era, and many were released under the shareware concept, while доска were знакомствв as freeware including iniquity.

    BBS systems on объявления systems remained popular, especially home computerslargely because they catered to the audience of users running those machines. The ubiquitous Commodore 64 introduced in was a common platform in the s. Доска earlier machines generally lacked hard drive capabilities, which limited them primarily to messaging.

    In the late s, a handful of BBS developers implemented multitasking communications routines inside their software, allowing multiple phone lines and объявлегия to connect to the same BBS computer.

    One of the first graphics based BBS applications объявления Excalibur BBS with a low bandwidth applications that required its own client for efficiency. This led to one of the earliest implementations of Electronic Commerce in with replication of partner stores around the globe.

    However, some home computer manufacturers extended the ASCII character set to take advantage of the advanced color and graphics capabilities of their systems. BBS software authors included these extended character sets in their software, and terminal program authors included the ability to display them when a compatible system was called. The use of these custom character sets was generally incompatible between manufacturers.

    Unless a caller was using terminal emulation software written for, and running on, the same type of system as the BBS, the session would simply fall back to simple ASCII output.

    As time progressed, most terminal programs began using the ANSI standard, but could use their native character set if it was available. A competing approach called Remote Imaging Protocol RIP emerged and was promoted by Telegrafix in the early to mids but it never became widespread. An industry standard technology called NAPLPS was also considered, and although it became the underlying graphics technology behind the Prodigy serviceit never gained объявления in the BBS market.

    Some offer access through packet switched networks or packet radio connections. They were usually smaller and targeted at selected audiences. sex dating

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